A History of Experimental Virology by Alfred Grafe

By Alfred Grafe

By their powers of cause scientists should be capable of extract from nature the solutions to their questions. From: Critique of natural cause, 1781 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German thinker background is a composite of reports. The background of the organic disciplines has been written by means of all those that opened the gates of latest wisdom by way of producing rules and the experiments to help them. earlier authors have tried a variety of ways to the background of virology, as is mirrored within the quite a few books and book-series issuing from the publishing homes. This quantity is an try out at a compre­ hensive but compact survey of virology, which has intended penetrating the inflexible limits of the separate disciplines of biology during which virologists have labored. penning this background of experimental virology used to be rather a look for the origins and for very important signposts to painting the vast scope of the information attained to date. This used to be performed in com­ plete understanding of the truth that each presentation relies seriously upon the viewpoint of the observer, and of necessity communi­ cates just a a part of the total. the current clinical tale hopes to recount crucial wisdom accomplished in this previous century - the 1st century of the fascinating advancements in virology.

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The infectious matter of miasmatic diseases (miasmas) originates upon or inside the earth ... 4. g. cholera, typhoid fever, yellow fever) two factors must be present: one from the patient and the other from the earth ... 5. disinfecting fresh excrements ... is superfluous ... g. anthrax in 1876, tuberculosis in 1882, cholera in 1883, typhoid fever and diphtheria in 1884, lobar pneumonia in 1885, and tetanus in 1890. Smith, which evoked more criticism than consensus in Europe. Nevertheless, there was soon enough proof of bacteria as causative agents also in the field of phytopathology.

With the use of the Abbe illuminating apparatus he improved microscopy and microphotography, and introduced differential staining of bacteria with alkalis and acids. His animal studies proved that wound infections were caused by parasites and not by toxic substances, and was able to ascribe a germ of distinguishing morphology as the cause of each distinct disease. After being appointed to the Kaiserliche Gesundheitsamt (Royal Department of Health) in Berlin, Koch's possibilities for further research on contagia animata improved immensely.

In 1901 Centanni reported his experimental results on the etiology of fowl plague before the Academia medica di Ferrara and in further publications in 1902. Gruber as well as Maggiora and Valenti undertook investigation of the disease. The A New Type of Pathogenic Agent? 41 unanimous opinion of all the authors was that the causative organism would not grow on conventional media, would not reproduce using the collodion-sac method, and could not be identified under the microscope. Lode and Gruber assumed the pathogen to be a small bacterium analogous to the FMD causative agent.

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